Chris' public policy work focuses on tort law and civil justice system reform. His work is generally divided among legislative efforts, appellate litigation and academic writing. Chris has drafted model legislation to be introduced on the state and federal level, authored amicus briefs to state supreme courts and federal appellate courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, and published in many legal periodicals and law reviews, including the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy. He has also testified before state legislatures on civil justice reform initiatives and presented at numerous law schools and legal conferences. In addition, Chris has assisted in the development of several Restatement and Principles projects of the American Law Institute addressing civil liability issues.

Legal Texts

Prosser, Wade & Schwartz’s Torts: Cases and Materials (13th ed. 2015) (contributor to product liability law chapter).

Produzentenhaftung (2014) (co-author of U.S. product liability law chapter of German legal treatise).

Articles

Insurance Law

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, A Look at the ALI's Restatement of Liability Insurance, Law360, May 3, 2016.

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Encouraging Constructive Conduct By Policyholders in the Restatement of the Law of Liability Insurance, 68 Rutgers L. Rev. 455 (2015).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, How Bad Faith Becomes Bad Law, Inside ALEC, Nov/Dec 2009, at 13-14, 19-20.

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Common-Sense Construction of Unfair Claims Settlement Statutes: Restoring the Good Faith in Bad Faith, 58 Am. U. L. Rev. 1477 (2009).

Product Liability

Victor E. Schwartz, Cary Silverman & Christopher E. Appel, Respirators to the Rescue: Why Tort Law Should Encourage, Not Deter, the Manufacture of Products that Make Us Safer, 33:1 Am. J. Trial Advoc. 13 (2010).

Victor E. Schwartz, Cary Silverman, Michael J. Hulka & Christopher E. Appel, Marketing Pharmaceutical Products in the Twenty-First Century: An Analysis of the Continued Viability of Traditional Principles of Law in the Age of Direct-To-Consumer Advertising, 32 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 333 (2009).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Effective Communication of Warnings in the Workplace: Avoiding Injuries in Working with Industrial Materials, 73 Mo. L. Rev. 1 (2008).

Victor E. Schwartz, Cary Silverman & Christopher E. Appel, Consumer Product Safety Reform Could Mean a Boon for Safety or a Boondoggle For Plaintiffs’ Lawyers: It’s Up to the CPSC, State AGs, the Courts, and You, 36:43 Prod. Safety & Liab. Rep. (BNA) 1106 (Nov. 3, 2008).

Mark Behrens & Christopher Appel, New Jersey and Missouri Supreme Courts Reject Lead Paint Public Nuisance Claims, Class Action Watch (Federalist Society for Law & Public Policy Studies), Sept. 2007, at 1.

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Analysis & Perspective: Average Wholesale Price Pharmaceutical Litigation Proposed Settlement: A Deal that Helps First DataBank and Lawyers, But Is It Fair to Others?, Class Action Litig. Rep. (BNA), May 25, 2007, at 390.

Tort Doctrine

Phil Goldberg, Christopher E. Appel & Victor E. Schwartz, The Liability Engine Could Not:  Why Decades-Long Litigation Pursuit of Natural Resource Suppliers Should Grind to a Halt, 12 J.L. Econ. & Pol'y 47 (2016).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, The Church Autonomy Doctrine: Where Tort Law Should Step Aside, 80 U. Cin. L. Rev. 432 (2012).

Mark Latham, Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, The Intersection of Tort and Environmental Law: Where the Twains Should Meet and Depart, 80 Fordham L. Rev. 737 (2011).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Reshaping the Traditional Limits of Affirmative Duties Under the Third Restatement of Torts, 44 John Marshall L. Rev. 379 (2011).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Exporting United States Tort Law: The Importance of Authenticity, Necessity, and Learning from Our Mistakes, 38 Pepp. L. Rev. 551 (2011).

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, The Need for Rational Boundaries in Civil Conspiracy Claims, 31 N. Ill. L. Rev. 37 (2010).

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg, & Christopher E. Appel, Can Governments Impose a New Tort Duty to Prevent External Risks? The “No-Fault” Theories Behind Today’s High-Stakes Government Recoupment Suits, 44 Wake Forest L. Rev. 923 (2009).

Victor E. Schwartz, Cary Silverman & Christopher E. Appel, "That’s Unfair!" Says Who –The Government or Litigant?: Consumer Protection Claims Involving Regulated Conduct, 47 Washburn L.J. 93 (2007).

Punitive Damages

Mark A. Behrens, Cary Silverman & Christopher E. Appel, Calculating Punitive Damages Ratios With Extracompensatory Attorney Fees And Judgment Interest: A Violation of the United States Supreme Court’s Due Process Jurisprudence?, 48 Wake Forest L. Rev. 1295 (2013).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Two Wrongs Do Not Make a Right: Reconsidering the Application of Comparative Fault to Punitive Damage Awards, 78 Mo. L. Rev. 133 (2013).

Victor E. Schwartz, Cary Silverman & Christopher E. Appel, The Supreme Court’s Common Law Approach to Excessive Punitive Damage Awards: A Guide for the Development of State Law, 60 S.C. L. Rev. 881 (2009).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Putting the Cart Before the Horse: The Prejudicial Practice of a “Reverse Bifurcation” Approach to Punitive Damages, 2 Charleston L. Rev. 375 (2008).

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Reverse Bifurcation” Approach to Punitive Damages Trials in West Virginia, Class Action Watch (Federalist Society for Law & Public Policy Studies), Mar. 2008, at 7.

Medical Monitoring

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Nevada Supreme Court Adopts Medical Monitoring Remedy in Negligence Actions, 24:2 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. Feb. 27, 2015).

Mark Behrens & Christopher Appel, Torts 101 – Damages for Those Who Might Get Sick Are Nonsensical, Nat’l L.J., Jan. 27, 2014, at 27.

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Medical Monitoring in Missouri After Meyer Ex Rel. Coplin v. Fluor Corp.: Sound Policy Should be Restored to a Vague and Unsound Directive, 27 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 135 (2007).

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Mississippi Supreme Court Rejects Medical Monitoring, 17:3 Legal Backgrounder (Wash. Legal Found.), February 9, 2007, at 1.

Climate Change Litigation

Christopher E. Appel, Time for Climate Change Tort Litigation to Cool Off Permanently, 12:223 Environmental Report (Bloomberg BNA) B-1, Nov. 20, 2012.

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg & Christopher E. Appel, Climate Change Tort Litigation, The Recorder, Oct. 4, 2012.

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg, & Christopher E. Appel, Does the Judiciary Have the Tools for Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions?, 46 Val. U. L. Rev. 369 (2012).

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg & Christopher E. Appel, Lawsuit Roulette: Pursuit of the “Children’s Trust” Climate Change Litigation, 26:15 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. July 8, 2011).

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg & Christopher E. Appel, Global Warming Lawsuits: Poised for Supreme Court Hot List?, 19:13 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. July 9, 2010).

Federal Regulatory Action

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Federal Government Crossfire: Fix the “Catch 22” Businesses Face from Conflicting Agency Demands, 23:15 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. Nov. 7, 2014).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Government Regulations and Private Litigation: The Law Should Enhance Harmony, Not War, 23 B.U. Pub. Int. L.J. 185 (2014).

Mark Latham, Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Is EPA Ignoring Clean Air Act Mandate To Analyze Impact Of Regulations On Jobs?, 29:15 Legal Backgrounder (Wash. Legal Found. June 6, 2014), reprinted in 28 Westlaw Employ. J. 24 (June 24, 2014).

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg & Christopher E. Appel, Appeals Court Rebuffs Federal Agency’s Attempt at Sue and Settle Regulation, 22:10 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. July 19, 2013).

Victor E. Schwartz, Phil Goldberg & Christopher E. Appel, A Hazardous Precedent: Federal Agency Proposal Targets Workers’ Private Health Insurance, 21:17 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. Aug. 3, 2012).

Public Outsourcing of Private Attorneys

Christopher E. Appel, Legislators Address the Growing Use of Contingent Fee Attorneys by State Officials, Inside ALEC, May / June 2013, at 20-21, 25.

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, The Plaintiffs' Bar's Covert Effort to Expand State Attorney General Federal Enforcement Power, 24:24 Legal Backgrounder (Wash. Legal Found. July 10, 2009), reprinted in 32 No. 3 Andrews Asbestos Litig. Rep. 11 (Nov. 30, 2009).

Victor E. Schwartz, Kevin Underhill, Cary Silverman, & Christopher E. Appel, Governments’ Hiring of Contingent Fee Attorneys Contrary to Public Interest, 23:34 Legal Backgrounder (Wash. Legal Found. Aug. 8, 2008).

Other Civil Justice Issues

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, 2015 Civil Justice Update (Federalist Soc’y July 2016).

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Controversial ABA Alternative Business Structures Proposal Stalls…Again, Int’l Ass’n of Def. Counsel, Civil Justice Response Comm. Newsletter (June 2016).

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Rebutting the Fraud on the Market Presumption in Securities Fraud Class Actions: Halliburton II Opens the Door, 5 Mich. Bus. & Entrepreneurial L. Rev. 33 (2015).

Christopher E. Appel, Reigning in New Ways to Sue Where Lawmakers Never Intended, Inside ALEC, Mar. 2011, at 6-7.

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Rational Pleading in the Modern World of Civil Litigation: The Lessons and Public Policy Benefits of Twombly and Iqbal, 33 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 1007 (2010).

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Denial of Federal Tax Deduction for Punitive Damages Threatens Job Growth, 18:12 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. June 5, 2009). 

Victor E. Schwartz & Christopher E. Appel, Federal Government Bailout for Trial Lawyers, 18:11 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. May 22, 2009). 

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Seventh Circuit Rejects Effort to Bypass Class Action Fairness Act in Mass Action, Class Action Litig. Rep. (BNA), Aug. 22, 2008, at 701. 

Mark A. Behrens & Christopher E. Appel, Second Circuit Upholds Federal Liability Reform Law, 18:12 Legal Opinion Letter (Wash. Legal Found. May 16, 2008).

Victor E. Schwartz, Philip Goldberg & Christopher Appel, Plaintiffs' Bar Campaign to Introduce Pain and Suffering Damages in Pet Food Cases Will Only Increase the Pain and Suffering of People's Pets, 35:39 Prod. Safety & Liab. Rptr. (BNA) 947 (2007).